Assignment 5: A Personal Project

This final assignment asks you to apply all you’ve learned in the course to build a collection of 10-12 final images on a theme of your choice.

When you’ve completed your collection, return to the brief that you set yourself at the start and consider how well your completed project matches up to your original intentions.  Write a reflective account (around 500 words) to accompany your images.  Here are a few ideas:

  • How did you choose your theme?
  • What went well? What went badly?
  • Did you stick to your original brief or did you find yourself departing from it? Why?
  • What technical problems did you experience? How did you solve them?
  • Are you please with your final collection? What could you have done differently?

Send your work to your tutor together with extracts from your learning log or your blog URL.  Your learning log work should reflect your experience of the personal project as a whole – good and bad.  Don’t be afraid to include evidence of your mistakes – it’s all part of the learning process.  You must include some prints in your assignment submission.

Reflection

Give yourself a final self-assessment check against the criteria before you send all your work off for assessment.  Make adjustments if you think there are any weaknesses.

Make sure that all work is labelled with your name, student number and assignment number.

Introduction to the Assignment

While I was home in the summer, I had a long, in-depth discussion with my tutor about the work I planned to submit for the final Digital Photographic Practice Assignment a Personal Project.  As with all of our assignments, the OCA ask that we apply all of our learning’s from the previous module into building a collection of images for submission.  Along with these images, we are also required to include a brief description of the work along with an outline of processes carried out to achieve our final goal.  For this assignment, the same stipulations have been made, but we are also required to include a reflective account of how we felt the project went and how well we thought we achieved our objective; this account can be found in my conclusion, along with my self-assessment refection.

The first two questions my tutor asked during our conversation was; what currently interested me most about photography? Moreover, what would I be able to achieve for the assignment?  Without hesitation, answering the first question was easy; Black & White imagery has had a big influence on my work over the past few months, and I would therefore be interested in shooting this final assignment purely monochrome.  Okay, that was fine, but what would my subject be?  This was a little trickier to answer, as I knew that South Korea would be my home during the work against the assignment; I have an unhealthy fascination with Temples, so this would probably be a good subject for me to choose.  Will this photograph well in black & white she then asked; well no, not really as Temples symbolise colour, vibrancy and an intensity of faith, all of which would be lost if captured in monochrome, so back to the drawing board then.

Well, not quiet back to the drawing board, as I knew that the subject of Temples would be the right direction for me to follow, I would just have to give up the idea of shooting my work as a montage of tones, textures and composition.

Next I was asked to think about the direction in which I could take my subject; as with all assignments (and something I have only just started to understand), I am not required to submit a batch of random images based around a theme, but I am required to submit a body of work that is cemented by a theme.  Therefore, with this in mind I suggested that I look at the relationship between Buddhism and Temples and how each complements the other, especially at a local level.  Therefore, this was my starting point for the assignment and the lead I took to complete a comprehensive, meaningful assignment to tie up DPP.

Assignment Research

Over the past few months, in between working through the final exercises in DPP, I have been trying to determine the best way to go about taking my photos for the Personal Project Assignment.  In her recent feedback from Assignment 4, my tutor commented that I should ask myself “why am I producing this work?” and “what do I want my audience to learn from my images?”

As per the recommended reading list for this course, as well as on the recommendation of my tutor, I have finally picked up my copy of Charlotte Cotton’s “The Photograph as Contemporary Art”.  I had struggled to read this book in the past, but I am finding it a little easier to digest now, perhaps that is because I have a better understanding for photography?

Flicking through the pages of images, I have always thought them a little old fashioned and perhaps somewhat out of date for our studies, but now I have a better understanding of the story this book is trying to tell, which is probably down to my own understanding of the term Contemporary Art.

According to the Internet, Contemporary Art is:

Art that has been and continues to be created during our lifetime

Esaak (n.d.)

This article goes on to state that collectively, Contemporary Art is more socially conscious than any of the previous art eras, with connections to various issues such as globalisation, AIDS awareness, feminism and multiculturalism to name a few.  It also states that Contemporary Art runs from roughly the 1970’s through to the present day, with Modern Art concentrating on the impressionists (1800 to 1970).

To put this in context with the writings of Cotton:

The aim of this book is not to create a checklist of all of the photographers who merit a mention in a discussion on Contemporary Art, but to give a sense of the spectrum of motivations and expressions that currently exist in the field.

Cotton (2009)

Therefore, The Photograph as Contemporary Art is not only a book discussing those that lead the way in Contemporary Photography, but it also highlights the light bulb moments, thought processes and personal justifications behind each collection of work; all of which is relevant to the assignments we are expected to carryout for the OCA.

When I reached chapter 5 in the book Intimate Life, the penny seemed to drop surrounding what I would like to capture for this assignment.

This chapter looks at the relationship between the intimacies of domestic life presented as Contemporary Art; it is hard to explain how this influenced my choice of theme for the assignment, but from reading these pages, an idea began to form of how I wanted to show the intimate relationship between Buddhists and their chosen doctrine.  Probably this chapter’s introduction sparked the initial thought pattern:

In chapter five, we concentrate on emotional and personal relationships, a kind of diary of human intimacy … This chapter considers what contemporary photographers add to this vernacular style, such as their focus on unexpected moments in everyday life, events that are distinctly different from those the average person would ordinarily capture.

Cotton (2009)

Most of the images presented in the twenty-nine pages of this book’s chapter depicting an Intimate Life are lurid, and in Cotton’s own words depict ‘… the vibrant portrayal of circles of friends and domestic drama …’ (p.165), and the subject matter is actually far removed from what I was looking to achieve.

Photographers such as Corinne Day, who published Diary (2000), chronicled the harrowing time she experienced during illness as well as the not so glamorous side of the fashion industry; opinion suggests that photographers such as Goldin and Clark influenced her workBoth well known for their early depictions of destruction, images showing out-of-control young people, addiction (both sexually and chemically) as well as the unhealthy side of social dependency.  However, in my portrayal of intimacy, my ideas was to turn this around completely and show the softer more tender existence of an addiction, an addiction intent on helping others and doing a little good in the world.

Although thought to be the third largest religion in the world (Choi 2007, p.20), little is known about Buddhism in the West, unless of course you have come into direct contact with this way of life.  Devotees conduct various rituals to ensure their path to Enlightenment, most of which you can see when visiting Temples here in the East.  For this assignment, it is my intention to show the humane side of Buddhism and the relationship this humanity has within the Temple environment, outlining both the devotion and humility of the enlightened.

To capture my images, over a number of weeks, I visited various Temples and Hermitage’s here in South Korea, some of which are famous in Korea’s Buddhist history and others simple establishments created for those devoted to this way of life.  These include:

  • Bulgkuk Temple
  • Tongdo Temple
  • Golguk Temple
  • Okcheonam Temple
  • Seongbul Temple
  • Yakcheon Temple

Equipment Used

For this assignment, I used the following photographic equipment:

  • Nikon D800
  • Nikkor 28-300 mm Telephoto Lens
  • Polarising Filter
  • Tripod
  • Cable release
  • Various ND Filters
  • Canon Digital IXUS9515

And the following software applications:

  • Adobe Camera RAW for Nikon
  • Adobe Photoshop

 In order not to bog down my narrative with technical information, you can find the details of each image along with the alterations made in appendix I at the end of this document.

Assignment

In order to understand my images, I need to give a brief explication of the subject and its place within Asian Culture.

Buddhism in Korea

Buddhism will always be known as the first non-western philosophy ever imported on a mass scale (Choi 2007, p.20).

Around 2,500 years ago in Nepal, Siddhartha Gautama was born into a life of privilege.  Over time and due to a series of ‘life events’ his world was shattered, leading him to seek fulfilment and what he thought to be the real meaning of life.  After many years of wandering, meditation and denial, he was proclaimed to be The Buddha, meaning ‘one who is awake’ or ‘woken up to reality’.

Buddha Statue - Yakcheon Temple

Buddha Statue – Yakcheon Temple

A visiting Chinese Monk first introduced Buddhism to the Korean peninsular in the 4th Century AD and as Buddhism was not seen to be confrontational, it seamlessly combined with the indigenous Shamanic[1] rule, with many of the mountains believed to be the spirits of pre-Buddhist times soon becoming the homes of predominant Buddhist Temples.

Although at the time most of Koreas population embraced Buddhism, over the centuries, this small peninsular saw many changes in Dynastic rule.  This eventually saw a decline in Buddhism’s popularity, especially in light of the growing interest in Confucianism[2], which was introduced to the peninsular around the same time as Buddhism; this decline led to oppression and a restriction of the Buddhist faith between 1392-1910 AD.

However, during the colonial period, Buddhism was greatly favoured by the Japanese, so a revival of sorts began, and after the liberation of South Korea in 1945, Buddhism regained popularity, with around half of today’s religious community thought to be Buddhist or to at least practice Buddhist principles in their daily lives.

The essence of Buddhism is Enlightenment[3], which is unconditional, and entails a life free from greed, ignorance and hatred, and is therefore distinguished by compassion, wisdom and freedom; Enlightenment also affords insight into the cause of human suffering:

The Buddha was not a god and he made no claim to divinity.  He was a human being who, through tremendous effort of heart and mind, transformed all limitations.  He affirmed the potential of every being to reach Buddhahood.  Buddhists see him as an ideal human being, and a guide who can lead us all towards Enlightenment.

The Buddhist Centre (n.d.)

Korean Buddhists follow four specific principles, the first and most important being Bodhisattva[4], which centres on Enlightenment:

A Bodhisattva is a being who postpones his or her own final Enlightenment in order to help all beings, for she is the perfection of altruism[5], perfect in wisdom and compassion.

Korean Buddhism Magazine (1997)

The other Buddhist principles include Unification, Openness and The Mundane.

The teachings of Buddha centre on the constant change we experience in life and how we can become better people by changing our mind-set, thinking more of others and becoming compassionate about the world around us.  The path to Enlightenment and eventually Nirvana[6] centres on meditation, which cultivates a sense of clam and a positive state of mind, thus enabling us to make positive changes to our demeanour.

This is my fundamental understanding of Buddhism and Buddhism in South Korea.  There is much to learn about and from this religion, and this is neither the time nor place for such musing, but one thing that is evident from my research; those devoted to The Buddha and his chosen life path are both dedicated and compassionate.  During my photography expeditions for this assignment, I experienced both of these traits repeatedly, and it is my intention for this to be seen in my images.

Temples

The setting for my work, although it has not always been so, Temples play a big role in the Buddhist faith, especially here in South Korea.  Back during the onset of its popularity, Buddhist Temples coexisted in both the mountains, where the larger monasteries were found, and within the many towns and villages dotted across the country.  The Temple shown here is a city dwelling and one I found by chance whilst scouting for any signs of Temples that remain within the town environment.

City Temple - Hakseong-Dong, Ulsan

City Temple – Hakseong-Dong, Ulsan

Buddhist Temples, can be identified by the Buddhist flag, or as seen here, the Swastika.  In India, the birthplace of Buddhism, the Swastika is a well-know symbol for good luck and was adopted to symbolise either Buddha’s feet or his footprints, but unfortunately, in the West this is a well-known symbol depicting oppression and hatred and it takes some getting used too, seeing it every day.

During the reign of the Silla Dynasty (668-935 AD), Korean Buddhism was at its height of popularity and many Temples, Pagoda’s[7] and other works of art were created and centred predominantly in the prefect of Gyeongju, which is now a UNESCO World Heritage site.

However, during its decline some century’s later, those Temples residing in the towns and villages were destroyed, and along with their inhabitants, banished to the mountains, where they now enjoy the serenity afforded to this peaceful religion and an abundance of land to nurture and tend for life’s underprivileged.

Within Korean culture, the location of any building/township is as a symbol of its success and a propitious site is one with excellent topography; ecology, wholesomeness, hills and flowing waters are the four traits specifically sought for the location of the prominent temples of this land.

Today, many Buddhist Temples are structures of grandeur, housing various memorabilia and deities[8] to be honoured to assist ones journey to Enlightenment.  Within the grounds, we can also see buildings designated to teaching, meditation and alters of offering to various prominent figureheads within the faith.

Buddhism seldom demands anyone visit Temples, chant the sutras[9] or prostrate before the Buddha images (Choi 2007, p.130).

As we can see from the quote above, Buddhist are not required to make regular visits to their local temple.  However, in my experience, especially at certain time of the day, week and year, a Temple will become a hive of activity, where people will come to practice their faith, look at their amazing surroundings or just take a quiet moment of refuge from the world around them.

Bulguksa Temple

Bulguksa Temple

Offerings and Meditation

The main teaching and the beginning of ones journey to Enlightenment in Buddhism is through meditation.  It is my understanding, that Buddhists will usually meditate alone, occupying a small corner of one of the many halls contained within the Temple complex, the solitude of this enabling complete absorption in their undertaking.  They will also use these buildings to chant passages of sutra and give offerings, each of which have specific purpose, and considered good training against greed and attachment.

Anticipation

Anticipation

The Temple’s Monks (or Nuns) will deliver a weekly sermon (much like that of a Christian Sunday Service), which is conducted in the main worship hall 다보탑or Daeungjeon[10], before entering the hall, shoes are usually removed.

Watching You

Watching You

By removing ones shoes, a mark of respect is shown to the head Monk, but this practice also assists in the comfort of sitting crossed legged for long periods.  Sometimes, if it is busy, or people are just passing by, they will stand and just listen; all are welcome to join in in some way.

A Simple Offering

A Simple Offering

 

 

A Watchful Eye

A Watchful Eye

 

 

Site Plan for Tongdosa Temple

Site Plan for Tongdosa Temple

Here is the site plan for Tongdosa Temple Complex.  Although this is one of the grander sites in South Korea, the layout gives us an idea of the structure behind a Temple complex.

An Act of Kindness

Practicing humility and kindness to those less fortunate, a Buddhist diocese will often offer meals, refuge and comfort to those in need, regardless of their colour, gender or religious believes.  During one visit to Tongdosa Temple, we were welcomed to participate in a communal lunch with others visiting the Temple this day.

Lunchtime Gathering

Lunchtime Gathering

Moreover, it is common to see monks taking the time for others.

An Act of Kindness

An Act of Kindness

A Welcome Retreat

As most Temples are now tucked away into the foothills and mountains of South Korea, it is easy to take refuge in their surroundings and find an inner peace by just sitting and taking in the glorious surroundings.

Meditative State

Meditative State

Buddhist Retreat

Buddhist Retreat

Secret Hideaway

Secret Hideaway

When visiting a Temple, especially in the early morning, when the sun is just rising and life begins to stir, I always find a sense of balance, calm in my surroundings, and feel as though I am the only person in the world, where people passing me by feel like ghosts.

Temple Ghosts

Temple Ghosts

Conclusion:

This has been one of my favourite assignments to date; although I put this down to the fascination I have with the subject material.

The biggest challenge I found with the assignment was applying a contemporary theme to my work; contemporary imagery is not a genre I am used to shooting, so careful deliberation was in order when selecting my final photos.  In the past, I have chosen ‘nice’ images, loosely fitting the remit, and for this assignment, although most of the images are good, there are some (specifically 1,2 and 9) that do not sit right with me.  However, that said, these do fall squarely in the contemporary photography category and are therefore what the assignment call for.

It has taken many weeks to pull both my images and ideas together for this assignment; I had specific shots in mind that were not always readily available, so I had to conduct numerous outings with my camera to get what I was looking for.  There were times when I found it difficult to concentrate on the task; I am used to going out and taking random photos for an assignment and here I had to be more specific about my images.  Moreover, as I carried out most of the work in autumn, I was often distracted by the glorious colours and scenery around me, which in hindsight is probably why it took so long to achieve my final goal.

I never documented my intent for this assignment until my recent discussion with my tutor, around the time of submitting assignment three.  I am never sure where I will be from one month to the next, so I was not able to cement an idea until I knew my schedule.  Once my location was finalised, I knew that Temples would feature in there somewhere, and it took a while and quiet a bit of research for me to realise the angle I would take.  I had always known that I wanted to document the relationship Buddhists and their Temples, and it was not until I picked up my copy of Charlotte Cotton’s The Photography as Contemporary Art that I realised how to achieve this (as documented in research section of this document).

Of all my technical learning’s during DPP my greatest find was the unsharp mask and it is a shame that it has taken me so long to discover this filter.  It has made an amazing difference to my work and I have cemented it as the final part of my post-processing workflow.  Another area of post-processing that I continue to explore is layers and their ability to combine together different elements of numerous images.  My final photo in the assignment was achieved by combining three separate images; over the summer, I produced many photos that included ‘ghosts’, and when trying to achieve this for the assignment I could never quiet get the effect I was looking for.  I did try and combine the photos using Photoshop’s Merge to HDR tool, but I could never get to work right, however, by using layers, I was able to combine specific areas from different images into I shot, which I am really pleased with.  In fact, the image represents what I like most about temples, constant movement in a peaceful environment.

In all, I am pleased with the final batch of images for the assignment, but I do wonder whether I have represented the intimacy I was originally looking to achieve.  It is difficult to portray a 3D feeling in a 2D representation, and being new to this kind of photography, I found it really challenging.  I do not really know how I could have worked this differently; although next time, perhaps I should use an interpreter to assist; with better access at each location, I may have been able to be more intimate with my subject.

Self-Assessment Criteria

As part of our growth as photographers, we are required to reflect on our work and assess were we think our strengths and weakness lie.  I do struggle with any kind of assessment, but self-assessment is very difficult; as I see myself grow as a photographer, in my own mind I feel that I am doing really well, so not the easiest thing to do, but le me give it a go.

  • Demonstration of Technical and Visual Skills materials, techniques, observational skills, visual awareness, design and compositional skills

This module has been limited in the requirement of taking photos; in fact, I have used many images from my back catalogue for the exercises.  Although saying that, I continue to see myself grow as a photographer, and with every outing I make, my images continue to improve.  As I spend most of my time in front of the computer, I seem to conduct most of my research online through random internet searches and through the various photography forums I belong too.  Sometimes I think that this is not such a great idea, as I have limited exposure to magazines, exhibitions and other photographers, which in turn may stunt my artistic growth.  At least I am not completely isolated and can find almost anything I need online, I just have to make sure that the information I read and images I look at are from a reliable source.  I do think, that over time, this could change, as I spend less time learning and more time exploring.

At the beginning of DPP I was taking all of my images in JPEG and my post-processing knowledge was limited to using iPhoto as my main processing software, but now I shoot in RAW, use Adobe Bridge to import, catalogue and store my photos and Photoshop to tweak and finalise my work.  This is the biggest step I have ever taken and my work has greatly improved in doing so.  I still battle with the ethics of post-processing, but this is something I have to overcome on a personal level.

I have not had much opportunity to conduct many personal projects or extracurricular activities since the summer, but I intend to spend some time before starting my next module to explore and experiment a little.

  • Quality of Outcome content, application of knowledge, presentation of work in a coherent manner, discernment, conceptualisation of thoughts, communication of ideas

My learning log continues to fill with the technical knowledge I am gaining surrounding photography, although it continues to lack my musings and conceptualisation of thoughts from this module.  Even though I have made numerous comments on my thoughts surrounding the subject of this module, general writings seem to have taken a bit of a backburner this time round.  I think the reason for this is that the module has been very technical, and my mind has been filled more with keystrokes and applications and not so much with the beauty of the world around me.

I am pleased with the coherence of my learning log and the way that it flows within the screen.  It is good to have all of my work showcased over the Internet in an easy to find catalogue, and I think that the tags and categories make it easy for visitors to find what they are looking for.  After the research I did surrounding web galleries, I am toying with the idea of creating a personal web page, one where I can showcase my work and point people too if they are interested in what I do.  Although, I am not sure if I have reached that point in my photography yet – perhaps over the next few months I will look into this more.

I only really use my sketchbook to hold details of the exhibitions I visit and the odd photo that appeals to me and I have not really visited it much since the work I did on assignment four.  I would love to think that I could put something in this book every week, but most of the research I do is Internet based and not always readily available to cut and paste into this log.

  • Demonstration of Creativity imagination, experimentation, invention, development of personal voice

I am finding it easier to think outside of the box now, and to image an image before I take it.  Photoshop has helped me be a little more creative, especially in the last couple of assignments, and for all that I am against lots of post-processing, there are times when knowledge of this programme can help.

My biggest show of creativity and imagination was during assignment four, which I really enjoyed; I have also been a little creative in this last assignment too, so I hope to continue along this line over the coming months.

  • Context reflection, research, critical thinking (learning log)

Still a sticking point, and likely to be one for years to come, but I am slowly immersing myself in the history of photography.  It is not always easy for me to read and absorb things, but I have found some podcasts that look at photography’s history, so I hope to start looking at these over the Christmas period.

I am glad that I took the time to open and read Charlotte Cotton’s The Photograph as Contemporary Art as this book really opened my eyes to contemporary photography and helped me achieve my goal for this assignment.

Looking back at the work I carried out during TAOP and comparing this to the work I do now, I can see a vast improvement, not only in my photography but also in my workflow, post-processing and general knowledge.  This can only continue to improve and as I improve I hope that each of the points mentioned above become second nature to me and easier to conduct in my daily photography routine.

Appendix I: Images

Image 1: Buddha At Yakcheon Temple – D800 – Taken 09.12.13

Processes

RAW – blacks, noise reduction, and vibrancy

Photoshop – straighten, crop and unsharp mask filter

Image 2: Hakseong-Dong City Temple – Cannon – Taken 20.11.13

Processes

RAW – highlight clipping, black reduction, vibrancy and saturation

Photoshop – unsharp mask filter

Image 3: Bulguk Temple – D800 – Taken 07.11.13

Processes

RAW – white balance temp altered to 4550 °K, highlight clipping, vibrancy and saturation

Photoshop – unsharp mask filter

Image 4: Anticipation (Bulguk Temple)  – D800 – Taken 07.11.13

Processes

RAW – white balance temp alter to 4100 °K, clipping, blacks, vibrancy and saturation

Photoshop – straighten and crop, unsharp mask filter

Image 5: Watching You (Tongdo Temple) – D800 – taken 03.11.13

Processes

RAW – white balance temp altered to 4700 °K, clipping, blacks, vibrancy and saturation

Photoshop – crop, darkened the exposure, unsharp mask filter

Image 6: A Simple Offering (Golguk Temple) – D800 – Taken 17.11.13

Processes

RAW – clipping, blacks

Photoshop – crop, unsharp mask filter

Image 7: A Watchful Eye (Tongdo Temple) – D800 – Taken 03.11.13

Processes

Photoshop – unsharp mask filter

Image 9: Lunch Time (Tongdo Temple) – D800 – Taken 03.11.13

Processes

RAW – Clipping

Photoshop – straighten and crop, exposure, unsharp mask filter

Image 10: An Act of Kindness (Tongdo Temple) – D800 – Taken 06.11.13

Processes

Photoshop – unsharp mask filter

Image 11: Meditative State (Bulguk Temple) – D800 – Taken 07.11.13

Processes

RAW – white balance temp altered to 3950 °K, black, vibrancy and hue

Photoshop – straighten, crop, unsharp mask filter

Image 12: Buddhist Retreat (Tongdo Temple) – D800 – Taken 06.11.13

Processes

RAW – clipping, vibrancy and saturation

Photoshop – cropped, unsharp mask filter

Image 13: Secret Hideaway (Golguk Temple) – D800 – Taken 17.11.13

Processes

RAW – clipping, black, vibrancy and saturation

Photoshop – straighten, crop, unsharp mask filter

Image 14: Temple Ghosts (Tongdo Temple) – D800 – Taken 13.11.13

Processes

RAW – white balance temp altered to 6500 °K, decreased tint, increased black, increased brightness & contrast

Photoshop – added two layers and adjusted them to merge with background, unsharp mask filter

Appendix II: Discarded Images

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Appendix III: Source

Reference:

Day, C.  (2000) Diary.  London: Kruse Verlag.  Cited in: Cotton, C.  (2009) The Photograph as Contemporary Art.  Revised 2nd edition.  High Holborn; Thames & Hudson Ltd.

Cotton, C.  (2009) The Photograph as Contemporary Art.  Revised 2nd edition.  High Holborn; Thames & Hudson Ltd.

Esaak, S.  (n.d.) What is Contemporary Art? [online article].  Available at: <http://arthistory.about.com/od/current_contemporary_art/f/what_is.htm&gt; [Accessed 4 November 2013].

Joon-sik, C.  (2007) Buddhism, Religion in Korea.  Seoul: Ewha Woman’s University Press. 

Kim, B R.  (1999) Tongdosa Temple, Busan, Korea, South [online image].  Available at: <http://www.orientalarchitecture.com/koreasouth/busan/tongdosa.php&gt; [Accessed 28 November 2013].

Korean Buddhism Magazine.  (1997) Buddhism In Korea [online article].  Available at: http://www.buddhismtoday.com/english/world/country/027-korea.htm [Accessed 26 November 2013].

Bibliography:

Asian Historical Architecture: http://www.orientalarchitecture.com/index.php

Cotton, C.  (2009) The Photograph as Contemporary Art.  Revised 2nd edition.  High Holborn: Thames & Hudson Ltd.

Clasquin-Johnson, M.  (2011) Common or Garden Dharma: Essays in Contemporary Buddhism, Vol. I [eBook].  South Africa: Centurion

Elizabeth, N.J.  (2010) Guide to Korean Culture.  Seoul: Hollym Corp.

Gyatso, G.K.  (2011) Modern Buddhism: Volume 1 Sutra [eBook].  Glen Spey: Tharpa Publication

Gyatso, G.K.  (2011) Modern Buddhism: Volume 2 Tantra [eBook].  Glen Spey: Tharpa Publication

Joon-sik, C.  (2007) Buddhism, Religion in Korea.  Seoul: Ewha Womans University Press. 

Koehler, R.  (2012) Religion in Korea; Harmony and Coexistence.  Seoul: Seoul Selection.

Koehler, R., Jackson, B.  (2012) Korean Architecture.  Seoul: Seoul Selection

Korean Buddhism Magazine.  (1997) Buddhism In Korea [online article].  Available at: http://www.buddhismtoday.com/english/world/country/027-korea.htm [Accessed 26 November 2013].

Official Korea Tourism Organisation: asiaenglish.visitkorea.or.kr

Seitz, T.J.  (2011) Thought on Buddhism – Three Short Writings [eBook].  South Africa: Smashwords

Tuffley, D.  (2011) The Essence of Buddhism [eBook].  South Africa: Smashwords

The Buddhist Centre: https://thebuddhistcentre.com


[1] Shaman: a person regarded as having access to, and influence in, the world of good and evil spirits.

[2] Confucianism: a system of philosophical and ethical teachings founded by Confucius

[3] Enlightenment: the action or state of attaining or having attained spiritual knowledge or insight

[4] Bodhisattva: a person who is able to reach nirvana but delays doing so out of compassion in order to save suffering beings

[5] Altruism: the belief in or practice of disinterested and selfless concern for the well-being of others

[6] Nirvana: (in Buddhism) a transcendent state in which there is neither suffering, desire, nor sense of self

[7] Pagoda: a Hindu or Buddhist Temple or sacred building, typically a many tiered tower

[8] Deities: a representation of a god or goddess, such as a statue or carving.

[9] Sutra: a Buddhist or Jain scripture

[10] Daeungjeon: hall of great hero or Dharma hall

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